MUSSON Factory is a consulting practice dedicated to helping public servants and government agencies adopt policies that promote the use of modular construction in creating affordable housing.

There is a growing consensus among real estate developers and policymakers that modular construction could transform the housing industry by offering a faster, more cost-effective, and sustainable alternative to traditional construction methods. At MUSSON Factory, we work with government entities to identify the most effective strategies and policies to promote modular construction within their communities.

Our team of experts has extensive experience working with government agencies, housing advocates, and private developers to identify opportunities for modular construction and implement strategies that support its growth. We are all active practitioners in our respective fields, with direct experience navigating obstructive public policies. Together, we represent the front line of industry experts who can help you identify and remove obstacles to the rapid development of affordable housing built offsite in a factory.

We are committed to advancing the use of modular construction to create affordable housing that meets the needs of individuals and families across the country. Thank you for considering MUSSON Factory for your modular construction consulting needs. We look forward to partnering with you to make affordable housing a reality for more Americans.

The HOUSING CRISIS is a ‘Wicked Problem’

Housing Crisis

The top 30 metropolitan districts, ranked by cost burden, post at least 50% housing cost burden. The top 100 cities range from roughly 40-60% cost-burdened.
(“Millions of Americans Burdened by Housing Costs in 2015,” 2015)

0 million Estimated number of housing units short in the U.S. Source: National Association of Realtors
0% Percent of Americans that are rent-burdened Source: Pew Research Center
$0 Average rent in the U.S. Source: CNBC

Across the United States, a shortage of affordable housing has reached crisis proportions, leaving many families struggling to secure a safe and stable shelter.

The housing crisis in the United States has reached a critical stage, with the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbating the shortage of affordable housing. The National Low Income Housing Coalition’s 2021 Out of Reach report highlights that over 7.2 million rental homes that are both affordable and available to extremely low-income renters are lacking. As a result, many families are struggling to secure a safe and stable shelter, particularly in the wake of the economic downturn caused by the pandemic.

In addition to the rental market, the dream of homeownership remains out of reach for many Americans due to the pandemic’s impact. Soaring home prices and stagnant wages have made it increasingly difficult for people to attain homeownership. According to the Urban Institute’s 2021 report, millennials’ homeownership rate was 7 percentage points lower than that of their Gen X and Baby Boomer counterparts at the same age.

The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the urgent need for innovative solutions to the housing crisis. Modular construction techniques offer a promising solution to produce affordable and ecologically sustainable housing. At MUSSON Factory, we are committed to partnering with government entities to formulate policies and strategies that promote the growth of modular construction and increase access to affordable housing, particularly for those affected by the pandemic. By leveraging technology and sustainable practices, we aim to create a brighter future for communities across the United States.

Furthermore, the pandemic has exposed the deep inequalities in the housing market, with communities of color and low-income households disproportionately impacted by the crisis. According to a report by the National Association of Realtors, Black and Hispanic homeowners were more likely to be behind on their mortgage payments compared to White homeowners.

At MUSSON Factory, we recognize the urgent need to address the inequalities in the housing market exacerbated by the pandemic. We believe that modular construction can play a crucial role in increasing access to affordable housing and reducing the disparities in the housing market. By collaborating with policymakers and communities, we are committed to building a more equitable and sustainable future for all.


You’ve Already Tried…

Modular Construction Could Actually Work


10 ways MODULAR CONSTRUCTION is the most promising way to build affordable housing

MODULAR CONSTRUCTION has several advantages when it comes to building affordable housing:

  1. Cost-effectiveness: Modular construction can be a cost-effective solution for affordable housing as it allows for the production of standardized building components in a controlled factory environment, reducing construction time and labor costs.
  2. Speed of construction: Since modular construction involves pre-fabrication of building components, the construction process can be significantly faster than traditional construction methods, reducing the time required to complete the project.
  3. Consistency: Modular construction ensures a consistent level of quality and standardization in the building components, making it easier to ensure that each unit meets safety and quality standards.
  4. Sustainability: Modular construction can be a sustainable solution for affordable housing as it often involves the use of recycled or eco-friendly materials, and waste generated during the construction process can be reduced.
  5. Flexibility: Modular construction allows for greater flexibility in design and layout, making it easier to customize housing units to meet the specific needs of the community and individual residents.
  6. Reduced site disruption: Modular construction minimizes the amount of time and disruption to the site during the construction process, making it easier to build affordable housing in urban areas where space is limited.
  7. Higher energy efficiency: Modular construction allows for greater control over insulation and HVAC systems, leading to higher energy efficiency and lower energy costs for residents.
  1. Improved safety: Modular construction takes place in a controlled factory environment, reducing the risk of accidents and injuries during the construction process. Additionally, since the majority of the work is done in a factory setting, there is less on-site traffic and disruption, making it safer for workers and residents alike.
  2. Higher quality: Modular construction often involves a higher level of precision and quality control compared to traditional construction methods, as the building components are manufactured to precise specifications in a controlled environment.
  3. Better financing options: Modular construction can make financing affordable housing projects easier and more accessible, as lenders may be more willing to provide funding for modular construction projects due to the lower risk and higher quality associated with this method of construction.

Overall, modular construction offers a range of advantages for affordable housing projects, including cost-effectiveness, speed, consistency, sustainability, flexibility, reduced site disruption, higher energy efficiency, improved safety, higher quality, and better financing options. By leveraging these benefits, modular construction can help make affordable housing more accessible and attainable for a wider range of communities and individuals.

Modular Will Work IF You Fix…


What did the subjects say?

Parking requirement
Plan review

Why is it so hard to get modular affordable housing built?

These are the PUBLIC POLICY positions that make modular construction more difficult.




A history of MUSSON Factory…

MUSSON Factory is a generations-old tradition of affordable housing innovation.

At the time of the American Civil War, Samuel David Robinson was one of the most prolific real estate developers, on the island of Bermuda.  He earned a fortune as a merchant and as the developer of many of the iconic real estate projects that have defined downtown Hamilton, for 150 years.  Robinson invested his wealth in social justice activism, founding the first high school open to black students, The Berkeley Institute.  Berkeley Institute has been the incubator for countless notable alumni and Robinson’s many landmark buildings have been, and are still, home to families and businesses that make up the island’s beautiful fabric.  Robinson’s many accomplishments are historic and chronicled in the Bermuda Archives, by the Bermuda Historical Society.  He accomplished all that, and became a member of the Bermuda Corporation as a black man, at the same time that Lincoln was signing the Emancipation Proclamation in the U.S.

Samuel David Robinson’s sister, Elisa Wilson Robinson, married Thomas Driver Musson.  Their son, Horace Francis Leopold Musson, founded MUSSON Factory in 1902.  The business was officially a machine shop,; but, unofficially, Musson repaired all sorts of machines (big and small), consulted engineering solutions to international clients, and invented novel tools to solve impossible problems.  One of those tools is called the stonecutter, which is universally credited to have transformed the construction industry in Bermuda.  Prior to the stonecutter, buildings were mostly constructed of stones, hand-cut from the earth with long saws, drawn by two people.  The stonecutter mechanized the process, lowering the cost of and speeding the production of stone blocks.  Building blocks, made quickly, of consistent quality, and at lower cost, had the effect of simplifying construction supply chain management on the island and making affordable housing available to lower-income buyers and renters as a permanent correction to the fair market (FMV) housing allocations in Bermuda.

Horace Musson’s son, Cyril David Musson, worked in his father’s shop from childhood until he left the island to study physics and then mechanical engineering, building upon what he learned under his father, the master engineer.  Cyril — an inventor, like his father — passes on the Musson spirit of socially conscious innovation to his son, Dr. Brent Musson, who embodies the legacy of his father Cyril, his grandfather Horace, and his great-granduncle Samuel David Musson.

In the 21st century, MUSSON Factory is the consulting practice that serves local, state, and federal government in the pursuit of policies that encourage modern methods (modular, panelized, offsite, industrialized) of construction as a strategy to address the affordable housing crisis and the need to house the unsheltered.


Our Team

Dr. Brent Musson

Dr Brent Musson

Policy and Regulation

Doctor of Law & Policy, MSc, PMP, licensed: General Contractor, Real Estate Broker, Lean Six Sigma Green Belt, college professor, and keynote speaker

Richard Prantis

Richard Prantis


The most prolific architect, designing modular multifamily housing in Southern California.

Jessica Mack

Jessica Mack

Energy Efficiency, Green Construction

Leading energy-efficiency expert, former group lead at Southern California Edison, Savings by Design expert

Duane Montgomery

Duane Montgomery

Real Estate Law

Partner at one of the leading real estate development law firms in North America.

Baxter Slaton

Baxter Slaton

International Development

Managing Director of a leading real estate developer, building housing, institutional, and destination retail across West Africa.

Kenny Hall

Kenny Hall

Module Logistics and Assembly

Former Project Lead at the top offsite/modular setting operation in the western United States. Has supervised the setting of tens of thousands of modules.

Craig Mitchell

Craig Mitchell

Modular Construction Process

Principal - BlackBox Offsite Solutions & Offsite / Modular Construction Enthusiast


A little light reading…



A synopsis of the housing crisis, the public policy barriers to building modular affordable housing, and the power of smart government to remove barriers and encourage affordable housing.



Maybe some of your questions have been asked before…  Visit our FAQs and see if your questions and our answers are already asked and answered; if not, ask a new question!



Dr. Musson’s doctoral research studies the obstacles to the adoption of offsite/modular construction as a strategy to increase housing production.


Observations and discussions of global and local issues…

Put Us to WORK for You!


Get in touch




Would you like to book a free consult with a project consultant?

Let’s have a conversation about your jurisdiction, your unique affordable housing challenges, and what policy positions can help to mitigate them.

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    65 Pine Ave., #129 Long Beach, CA 90802